Here is a redoubt in the line of the Confederate defenses, built across the James-York Peninsula in 1861-62 by General John B. Magruder.
Major General John B. Magruder, or “Prince John,” was a military officer who served in the American Civil War. General Magruder was assigned to the artillery but resigned from the U.S. Army when Virginia seceded the Union. After he resigned, he was commissioned as a colonel in the Confederate army and rose quickly through the ranks to Major General. His most important role during the war took place during and against Major General George B. McClellan’s Peninsula campaign in 1862 (Eicher).
At the Battle of Yorktown, Magruder was able to successfully deceive McClellan in regards to his strength – he made McClellan believe that he [Magruder] was actually stronger than he was. In order to do so, he did things such as give illusions of larger troops, move his artillery frequently and use tons of ammunition whenever Union troops were in sight. Furthermore, Magruder had prepared three defensive lines across the Peninsula. The first was about twelve miles north of Fort Monroe and contained infantry outposts and artillery redoubts, and though it was insufficiently manned, its sole purpose was to deceive the Union forces about the second line of defense.
The second line of defense stretched from Yorktown to Mulberry Island and was called the Warwick Line. It consisted of more redoubts, rifle pits and strong fortifications by the river. He built dams in order to pose a strong obstacle for the Union forces. Finally, the third line was the use of a series of forts in Williamsburg, which were left unmanned so that the army could fall back on it if they had to from Yorktown (Sears, 70). His actions successfully delayed McClellan for weeks and earned him an enlightened seat in General Johnston’s eyes. General McClellan was convinced that Magruder was stronger than he was and thus held back while general Johnston was able to bring in serious reinforcements for Magruder – though he still was unable to gain enough to defend his lines. However, it was not long before he fell from favor because he was not aggressive enough in battle and his drunkenness proved to be a problem. He immediately was blacklisted in the eyes of Robert E. Lee, and reassigned elsewhere (Cutrer).
Cadorph, Paul D. Prince John Magruder: His Life and Campaigns. New York: John Wiley & sons, 1996.
Cutrer, Thomas W. Magruder, John Bankhead. Handbook of Texas Online. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fma15 (accessed March 10, 2012).
Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. New York: Stanford University Press, 2001.
Latimer, Jon. Deception in War. London: John Murray, 2001.
Sears, Stephen W. To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001.
Settles, Thomas M. John Bankhead Magruder: A Military Reappraisal. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2009.
Warner, Erza J. Generals in Gray. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959.
“John B. Magruder,” National Park Service, www.nps.gov (accessed May 2, 2012).
“Plan of the Battle of Yorktown,” U.S. History Images: Battle of Yorktown, www.ushistoryimages.com (accessed May 2, 2012).
“Battle of Yorktown,” U.S. History Images: Battle of Yorktown, www.ushistoryimages.com (accessed May 2, 2012).
Department of Historic Resources– This marker has since been removed due to construction.
Tags: 19th century, Civil War, Confederate, Defenses, Fort Monroe, Headquarters, James City Count, John B. Magruder, Magruder's Defenses, McClellan, Peninsula Campaign, Robert E. Lee, route, Union, Warwick Line