Archive for the ‘Churches’ Category

Vineyard Tract W-46

Wednesday, April 11th, 2012

Inscription:

Here was an experimental farm for the culture of grapes was established by the government in 1769.  On this tract stood a hospital for the French-American army, 1781.

 

 

 

Further Research

Grapes

Growing grapes in Virginia was an extremely popular idea in the formative years of the United States of America.  In fact, in 1619, growing grapes was even once required by law when the House of Commons passed the “12th Acte” that mandated male colonists plant at least ten grapevines each year until they were considered proficients (Carter).  Unfortunately, grapevines ultimately failed to grow in Virginia.  This fact was also proven in 1769 when the grapes were all destroyed by pests, disease, and the Revolutionary War (Carter).  During the Revolutionary War, the French-American army built a hospital to service their wounded.

Further Reading

Carter, Rusty. “Vineyard Tract.” The Virginia Gazette Roadside History, September 2010. http://issuu.com/llake/docs/roadside_history_final/37?mode=a_p (accessed April 1, 2012).

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Vineyard Tract W-46,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Grapes,” Encyclopedia Britannica, www.britannica.com (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources

Martin’s Hundred Church W-52

Wednesday, April 11th, 2012

Inscription:

The first Martin’s Hundred Parish church was probably built at Wolstenholme Town, an early 17th-century settlement that was located a mile southeast of here. None of the structures excavated there have been identified as a church; it may have been in a portion of the town that has been lost to erosion. A second parish church was built about 1630. Martin’s Hundred Parish was incorporated into Yorkhampton Parish in York County in 1712, and the Martin’s Hundred Church may have been abanodned then. The cemetery there probably continued in use for some time afterward.


Further Research

York-Hampton Parish

Martin’s Hundred Parish was the local church for the collection of people who were known as the Society of Martin’s Hundred. It was a small church which was established after the reallocation of land from plantations into counties in 1634 (Archaeology at the Atkinson Site). The parish would remain until 1713, when it was taken in by the York-Hampton Parish (Historic Jamestowne). One of the gravestones were stumbled upon by George Meade and Richard Randolph. It was the tomb of Samuel Pond, who died in 1694 (Meade, 242).

Further Reading


“Martin’s Hundred.” Archaeology at the Atkinson Site. http://research.history.org/Archaeological_Research/MHPage/MH.htm (Accessed March 12, 2012).

“Martin’s Hundred Sites.” Historic Jamestowne. http://apva.org/rediscovery/page.php?page_id=404 (Accessed March 12, 2012).

Meade, William. Ministers and Families of Virginia. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippencott and Company, 1861.

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Martin’s Hundred Church W-52,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“York-Hampton Parish,” Library of Congress, www.loc.gov (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources

Charles Church NP-1

Wednesday, April 11th, 2012

Inscription:

About one mile east, on north (lefthand) side of road (see stone marker and old foundations) stood the last colonial church of Charles Parish, built about 1708 and burned a century later, on the site of two earlier churches of the parish, built about 1636 and 1682. The parish was first known as New Poquoson Parish in 1635 and was renamed Charles Parish in 1692.

Further Research

Regarding Charles Parish, the House of Burgesses on Dec. 11thof 1692 ordered that, “upon the peticon of ye pishioners of New Poquoson in ye county of Yorke yt from henceforth forever hereafter ye old pish Church shall be called and named Charles Church. And ye river formerly called New Poquoson river shall from time to time and all times hereafter be called and written, Charles river.” (125) After this proclamation, the parish officially became known as Charles Church. The Register of the Parish has offered a long history of the Church’s reverends, and members. One of the first entries was made in 1687: “Ye Rev. Thomas Finney, rector of this parish, died and was buried in the chancel of New Poquoson Church.” (126)

The next minister, Rev. James Sclater served the parish for 35 years, and died in 1723. After Sclater’s death, it was reported to the Bishop of London that Charles Parish’s leadership was vacant. Rev. James Falconer was then called from Elizabeth City to serve as rector, but died shortly after in 1727. After Falconer’s death, Rev. Theodosius Staige came from Fredericksburg, and then died in 1747. The Register then mentions Rev. Thomas Warrington as the church’s rector, but was called away from the church in 1756. Rev. Samuel Shields is the last name mentioned on the register in 1789. Throughout 140 years of existence, Charles Parish had only six ministers. (127)

"Charles Parish" book

Today, The Register of Charles Parish, York County, Virginia is the oldest surviving database of Colonial Virginia genealogy that exists. It provides the records of the births and deaths of its members from 1648 to 1789.

Further Reading

Bell, Landon C. Charles Parish, York County, Virginia: History and Registers, Births, 1648-1789 and Deaths, 1665-1787. Indexed. Clearfield Co, 1999.

 Colonial Churches in the Original Colony of Virginia: a Series of Sketches by Especially Qualified Writers. Southern Churchman Co., 1908.

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Charles Church NP-1,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Charles Parish,” The Virginia Shop at the Library of Virginia, www.thevirginiashop.org (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources

Hickory Neck Church W-30

Wednesday, April 11th, 2012

Inscription:

Hickory Neck Church was built about 1740. Militia opposing the British camped here on April 21, 1781. A few miles north is the foundation of an ancient stone house, dating possibly from about 1650.

 

 

Further Research

Hickory Neck Church

According to the current congregation…

“The Historic Chapel has a glorious history of survival. The northern two-thirds of the present building was built in 1774 as a transept to the original 1734 church. After the Revolutionary War, the church fell into disrepair and the original church was torn down and the southern third of the present building was added around 1825 to provide space for Hickory Neck Academy. The Academy also served various denominations as a place to worship before the Civil War. The war years were hard on Hickory Neck leaving it in near ruinous condition, but again, it was repaired and put back into service as a school. Eventually James City County erected a public school in Toano and our building was reconsecrated as an Episcopal church in 1917. “

Hickory Neck Church - Present Day

Further Reading

Hickory Neck Church. “Historic Chapel Fund.” http://www.hickoryneck.org/historic-chapel-fund/ (accessed March 17, 2012).

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Hickory Neck Church W-30,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Hickory Neck Church,” Library of Congress, www.loc.gov (accessed May 2, 2012).

“Hickory Neck Church- Present Day,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

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Department of Historic Resources

Church On The Main V-46

Thursday, March 22nd, 2012

Inscription:

Less than one mile to the east is the site of the Church on the Main, a brick Anglican church built by the 1750s to serve James City Parish as replacement for the church on Jamestown Island, which had become difficult for communicants to reach. The Rev. James Madison(1749-1812) was its best-known rector, serving the church from about 1777 until it fell into disguise after the American Revolution and the disestablishment of the Anglican Church. Madison became president of the College of William and Mary(1777-1812) and Virginia’s first Episcopal Bishop in 1790. By 1857 all aboveground traces of the church were gone.

Further Research

Rt. Rev. James Madison, D.D., first bishop of Virginia http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchdetail.cfm?trg=1&strucID=257721&imageID=em14526&word=Madison%2C%20James%2C%201749-1812&s=3&notword=&d=&c=&f=2&k=0&lWord=&lField=&sScope=&sLevel=&sLabel=&sort=&total=65&num=0&imgs=20&pNum=&pos=2

Two miles south of Jamestown, an agricultural area known as “the Main” became home to an anglican parish sometime in the early 1750s. As the population of Jamestown and Williamsburg exploded, the Church on the Main became a popular place of worship.

The land on which the church stood was owned by Mr. Richard Ambler of Yorktown. Upon his death in 1766, Ambler left 301 acres of the Main property to his eldest son John. John died soon after his father, and the land then was given to John’s eldest brother Edward. The youngest Ambler brother Jaquelin, married Rebecca Burwell of the Kingsmill Plantation. All three brothers were prominent members of colonial Virginia society. Both eldest brothers held seats in the House of Burgesses, and the youngest served on the Council of State, was Treasurer of Virginia, and participated in the Revolutionary War.

Early Drawing of College of William and Mary http://chestofbooks.com/reference/American-Cyclopaedia-3/College-Of-William-And-Mary.html

During the War, American forces serving under General Wayne met British regulars under General Cornwallis at the Battle of Greenspring. The battle took place on the property of the Church of the Main, where the American forces were outnumbered and strategically retreated towards Yorktown. Around forty total casualties were suffered in the foray, including French sodliers under General Lafayette.

In 1788, Edward’s share of the Main was purchased from the College of William and Mary by his son John.

Further Reading

Selby, John E., and Don Higginbotham. The Revolution in Virginia, 1775-1783. Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg, 2007.

Morgan, Timothy E. Williamsburg: A City That History Made. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2004.

Lytle, Richard M. The Soldiers of America’s First Army, 1791. Scarecrow Press, 2004.

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Church on the Main V-46,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Rt. Rev. James Madison, D.D.” NYPL Digital Gallery, www.digitalgallery.nypl.org (accessed May 2, 2012).

“Early Drawing of the College of William and Mary,” The American Cyclopaedia, http://chestofbooks.com (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources link not available

Olive Branch Christian Church W-28

Tuesday, March 20th, 2012

Inscription:

In 1833 the founders of Olive Branch Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) met for worship at Hill Pleasant Farm. By 1835, the congregation had built a brick church on land donated by Dr. Charles M. Hubbard and Mary Henley. During the Civil War, Union soldiers occupied the church; they reportedly slept in the gallery and stabled their horses in the sanctuary. The congregation worshiped in the Farthing house until 1866, when the church was restored to usable condition. With that exception, Olive Branch Christian Church, one of the oldest churches of the Disciples of Christ in Virginia, has been in continuous use since its construction.

Further Research

The Olive Branch Christian Church is one of the oldest churches of the Disciples of Christ in Virginia.  In 1833, twenty “Disciples of Christ” met at Hill Pleasant farm to worship and eventually constructed the original church building in 1835 (OBCC).  The Disciples of Christ emerged during the Second Great Awakening in the 19th century (McAlister, 27).

Olive Branch Christian Church - Present Day

During the Civil War, Union soldiers used Olive Branch as an outstation.  The cavalry used the galley as sleeping quarters and the sanctuary as a stable.  The pews and flooring of the church was used for fuel and the windows broken during this war.  The Church was not returned to usable condition until 1866, until which time the congregation worshipped in the Farthing House (OBCC).

The Church does regular services for the public today.

Further Reading

McAlister, Lester G and William E. Tucker. Journey in Faith: A History of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). St Louis: Chalice Press, 1975.

Olive Branch Christian Church. “History”. www.ob-cc.org (accessed March 8, 2012).

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Olive Branch Christian Church W-28,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Olive Branch Christian Church-Present Day,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

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Department of Historic Resources

Chickahominy Church W-32

Tuesday, March 20th, 2012

Inscription:

 Two miles south is the site of the colonial Chickahominy Church, now destroyed. Lafayette’s forces camped there, July 6-8, 1781. The church was used as a hospital after the battle of Green Spring, July 6, 1781.

 

 

Further Research

General Cornwallis

James City County saw several Revolutionary War battles during the year of 1781.  The Battle of Green Spring took place near Green Spring Plantation.  In June, General Cornwallis pursued Lafayette who was attempting to parallel the British Army’s movements (Wickwire).  On July 6, one of Lafayette’s generals, “Mad” Anthony Wayne, was ambushed with his forces by General Cornwallis near Green Spring, as he lead a troop of 500 men (Johnston).

Portrait of "Mad" Anthony Wayne

General Lafayette had joined Wayne at Green Spring and noticed British guards and decided to attack which lead to minor skirmishes.  Lafayette soon realized that something was wrong and began to hold back some of his battalion and camped at Green Spring Chickahominy Church – able to observe the maneuvers of the battle.  Both the Marquis de Lafayette and Anthony Wayne used the estate as a marshaling area before engaging the British forces (Cotton). Meanwhile, Wayne continued to administer significant casualties to the British.  However, Cornwallis had tricked hem and had lured Wayne into a trap.  Fortunately, Wayne was able to charge on the British and halter their advance until Lafayette returned with his forces in order to aid in American retreat.  The American forces retreated the Green Spring where the Chickahominy church was used as a hospital to administer to the wounded forces but was eventually burned down during the Civil War (Mason, 528).

Further Reading

Cotton, Lee Pelham. Green Spring Plantation: An Historical Summary. http://www.historicgreenspring.org/plantation_history.php (accessed March 7, 2012).

Clary, David A. Adopted Son Washington, Lafayette, and the Friendship that Save the Revolution. New York: Bantam Books, 2007.

Johnston, Henry Phelps. The Yorktown Campaign and the Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781. New York: Harpers and Brothers, 1881.

Mason, Geoge. “The Colonial Churches of James City County, Virginia.” William and Mary Quarterly, Second Series 19, no. 4 (October, 1939), 510-30.

Nelson, Paul David. Anthony Wayne, Soldier of the Early Republic. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

Wickwire, Franklin and Mary. Cornwallis: The American Adventure. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970. http://www.jccegov.com/pdf/news/jcc-historical-map_web.pdf (Accessed April 12, 2012).

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Chickahominy Church W-32,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“General Cornwallis,” The Colonial Willamsburg Foundation, www.history.org (accessed May 2, 2012).

“Portrait of ‘Mad’ Anthony Wayne,” Archiving Early America, www.earlyamerica.com (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources