Archive for the ‘Yorktown’ Category

Martin’s Hundred Church W-52

Wednesday, April 11th, 2012

Inscription:

The first Martin’s Hundred Parish church was probably built at Wolstenholme Town, an early 17th-century settlement that was located a mile southeast of here. None of the structures excavated there have been identified as a church; it may have been in a portion of the town that has been lost to erosion. A second parish church was built about 1630. Martin’s Hundred Parish was incorporated into Yorkhampton Parish in York County in 1712, and the Martin’s Hundred Church may have been abanodned then. The cemetery there probably continued in use for some time afterward.


Further Research

York-Hampton Parish

Martin’s Hundred Parish was the local church for the collection of people who were known as the Society of Martin’s Hundred. It was a small church which was established after the reallocation of land from plantations into counties in 1634 (Archaeology at the Atkinson Site). The parish would remain until 1713, when it was taken in by the York-Hampton Parish (Historic Jamestowne). One of the gravestones were stumbled upon by George Meade and Richard Randolph. It was the tomb of Samuel Pond, who died in 1694 (Meade, 242).

Further Reading


“Martin’s Hundred.” Archaeology at the Atkinson Site. http://research.history.org/Archaeological_Research/MHPage/MH.htm (Accessed March 12, 2012).

“Martin’s Hundred Sites.” Historic Jamestowne. http://apva.org/rediscovery/page.php?page_id=404 (Accessed March 12, 2012).

Meade, William. Ministers and Families of Virginia. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippencott and Company, 1861.

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Martin’s Hundred Church W-52,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“York-Hampton Parish,” Library of Congress, www.loc.gov (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources

Goodwin Neck NP-12

Wednesday, April 11th, 2012

Inscription:

This area, locally known as Dandy, was part of the land granted to John Chew July 6, 1636, and was sold by his heirs to James Goodwin, a member of the House of Burgesses from Jamestown, August 27, 1668. The area was strategically important both to British General Charles Cornwallis and to Confederate General John B. Magruder, who erected earth redoubts at the heads of several creeks on Goodwin Neck.

Further Research

Lord Cornwallis

A strategically important area, Goodwin Neck was instrumental to the British army of Cornwallis in the Revolutionary War, and to the Confederate General John B. Magruder during the Civil War. The “Neck” aspect of it’s name signifies the various creek basins, that come to a head on this part of Virginia’s peninsula.

On July 6th, of 1781, the Battle of Green Spring was fought around this location. General Cornwallis fought the heavily outnumbered Colonial Army of General Lafayette, and there was no clear outcome. Though fought to a stalemate, the Colonial Army was able to maintain its composure thanks to a fearsome bayonet charge led by “Mad” Anthony Wayne.

John Magruder

During the Civil War, the defensive lines of General John B. Magruder ran through Goodwin Neck. There were a total of three defensive lines, which were meant to deceive Union General George McClellan. These fortifications were successful, as they delayed the massive Union army’s progress, until Confederate General Joe Johnson was able to gather a force large enough to defeat them. Unfortunately, General Magruder’s drunkenness was his true downfall, as Robert E. Lee assigned him elsewhere soon after this campaign.

Further Reading

Cadorph, Paul D. Prince John Magruder: His Life and Campaigns. New York: John Wiley & sons, 1996.

Cutrer, Thomas W. “Magruder, John Bankhead.” http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fma15 (accessed March 10, 2012).

Johnston, Henry Phelps. The Yorktown Campaign and the Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781. Harper & Brothers, 1881.

Ramsay, David. The History of the American Revolution. Printed and sold by James J. Wilson, 1811.

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Goodwin Neck NP-12,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Lord Cornwallis,” Library of Congress, www.loc.gov (accessed May 2, 2012).

“John Magruder,” Library of Congress, www.loc.gov (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources

Seaford NP-3

Wednesday, April 11th, 2012

Inscription:

Settlement began here in 1636, when John Chisman patented 600 acres on Crab Neck, a peninsula bounded by Chisman Creek and Back Creek, a tributary of York River. The neck then lay in Charles River Parish in York County, one of the eight original shires created in 1634. A Confederate fortification stood near the narrowest part of the neck in 1862, and during the Civil War Union troops destroyed Zion Methodist Church here. Crab Neck post office was established in 1889; its name was changed to Seaford in 1910.

Further Research

Chief Powhatan

Tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Indians, who were united by Chief Powhatan, thrived in this area before English settlement of their colonies in the seventeenth century. (Gleach) These tribes became known as the Powhatans to the Powhatan Confederacy, with their primary village located near Glouchester, and hundreds of other villages were located throughout the Chesapeake Bay area and the Virginia coastal plain. (Spaar) The area was a prime region for fishing and seafood. (Wiggins)

Map of Southeastern Virginia

The community of Seaford was originally known as Crab Neck, Crab Rock and Calamar, and only 30 families lived there prior to the Civil War. (Quass) General John B. Magruder’s defensive lines also ran through the area, while the Confederate Ship’s Point Battery was nearby on the Poquoson River in 1862. Ship’s Point Battery contained around 16 heavy artillery guns, meant to thwart any advances by Union vessels.

During the Revolutionary War, this area was crucial to General Cornwallis’ defense of Yorktown in 1781. (Payette)

Further Reading

Gleach, Frederic W. Powhatan’s World and Colonial Virginia: A Conflict of Cultures. (Omaha, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 2000).

Payette, Pete. North American Forts. “Seaford Defenses.” Online at http://www.northamericanforts.com/East/vatide.html#seaford (Accessed April 12, 2012).

Quass, B. “Seaford Virginia” Online at http://www.quass.com/seafordvirginia.html (Accessed April 11, 2007).

Spaar, K. “The Potomac Appalachian trail club-short history of the Powhatan Indians”. Online at http://www.patc.net/history/native/ind_hist.html (Accessed April 11, 2007).

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Seaford NP-3,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Chief Powhatan,” Find a Grave, www.findagrave.com (accessed May 2, 2012).

“Map of Southeastern Virginia,” Library of Congress, www.loc.gov (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources

Charles Church NP-1

Wednesday, April 11th, 2012

Inscription:

About one mile east, on north (lefthand) side of road (see stone marker and old foundations) stood the last colonial church of Charles Parish, built about 1708 and burned a century later, on the site of two earlier churches of the parish, built about 1636 and 1682. The parish was first known as New Poquoson Parish in 1635 and was renamed Charles Parish in 1692.

Further Research

Regarding Charles Parish, the House of Burgesses on Dec. 11thof 1692 ordered that, “upon the peticon of ye pishioners of New Poquoson in ye county of Yorke yt from henceforth forever hereafter ye old pish Church shall be called and named Charles Church. And ye river formerly called New Poquoson river shall from time to time and all times hereafter be called and written, Charles river.” (125) After this proclamation, the parish officially became known as Charles Church. The Register of the Parish has offered a long history of the Church’s reverends, and members. One of the first entries was made in 1687: “Ye Rev. Thomas Finney, rector of this parish, died and was buried in the chancel of New Poquoson Church.” (126)

The next minister, Rev. James Sclater served the parish for 35 years, and died in 1723. After Sclater’s death, it was reported to the Bishop of London that Charles Parish’s leadership was vacant. Rev. James Falconer was then called from Elizabeth City to serve as rector, but died shortly after in 1727. After Falconer’s death, Rev. Theodosius Staige came from Fredericksburg, and then died in 1747. The Register then mentions Rev. Thomas Warrington as the church’s rector, but was called away from the church in 1756. Rev. Samuel Shields is the last name mentioned on the register in 1789. Throughout 140 years of existence, Charles Parish had only six ministers. (127)

"Charles Parish" book

Today, The Register of Charles Parish, York County, Virginia is the oldest surviving database of Colonial Virginia genealogy that exists. It provides the records of the births and deaths of its members from 1648 to 1789.

Further Reading

Bell, Landon C. Charles Parish, York County, Virginia: History and Registers, Births, 1648-1789 and Deaths, 1665-1787. Indexed. Clearfield Co, 1999.

 Colonial Churches in the Original Colony of Virginia: a Series of Sketches by Especially Qualified Writers. Southern Churchman Co., 1908.

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Charles Church NP-1,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Charles Parish,” The Virginia Shop at the Library of Virginia, www.thevirginiashop.org (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources

Patrick Napier, Colonial Surgeon W-41

Tuesday, April 3rd, 2012

Inscription:

Nearby lived “Patrick Napier of Queenes Creek in the County of Yorke Chirurgeon,” one of the earliest surgeons of Scottish descent in Virginia. Born about 1634, and apprenticed to the surgeon general of the Scottish army defeated by Cromwell in 1650, Patrick Napier arrived here before 1655. He married Elizabeth, a daughter of Robert Booth, clerk of the York County Court and a member of the House of Burgesses. By horse and boat, Napier attended the sick, performed surgery, bled his patients, and dispensed various remedies consistent with the practice of medicine in the mid-seventeenth century. He died in 1669. He was the progenitor of most of the Napiers in America.

Further Research

Dr. Patrick Napier comes from a long lineage of Scottish Napiers, most likely a descendent of the clan of Kilmahew Napiers. Dr. Patrick Napier’s father was also a “chirugeon”, and his father worked directly for King Charles I, while he directly apprenticed for the surgeon-general of the Scottish Army, Dr. Alexander Pennycuik.  Dr. Patrick Napier was born sometime around 1610 in Scotland, and after arriving in Virginia sometime around 1650-1655, he married Elizabeth Booth (Woodson, 29).

Tools Used in Surgery

During the early colonial times, many doctors came to Virginia with the prospects of being able to practice medicine freely, with virtually no restrictions.  They provided an important service to the colonists, as the first year in Virginia was always the hardest.  On average, 1 out of every 5 immigrants died due to the “seasoning time” (the time to become adjusted to the climate and natural elements of the land) and Dr. Patrick Napier helped to provide medicine and relief to these colonists to help them (Tyler, 268).

Tool Used for Cleaning Wounds

Dr. Patrick Napier was involved in a legal matter regarding his boat.  In the early days of the settlement, the chief means of transportation were through waterways by boat since barely any roads existed. In 1660, a man named Mr. Strachey borrowed Dr. Napier’s boat without permission and Dr. Napier was unable to attend to his sick patients because of this. In return, Mr. Strachey was fined 350 pounds of tobacco due to his negligence of Dr. Napier’s belongings (Doliante, 3).

Leeches Used for Bloodletting

Dr. Patrick Napier was not the only colonial surgeon that was present in Jamestown during this time, but along with the 5-6 other physicians they are noted for helping to keep the colony alive and practicing the first bits of medicine in the New World.

 

 

 

 

Further Reading

Napier, Charlie. The Napiers of Kilmahewhttp://www.clannapier.org/klmhwnap.htm (Accessed April 12, 2012).

Doliante, Sharon. Maryland and Virginia Colonials: Genealogies of Some Colonial Families : Families of Bacon, Beall, Beasley, Cheney, Duckett, Dunbar, Ellyson, Elmore, Graves, Heydon, Howard, Jacob, Morris, Nuthall, Odell, Peerce, Reeder, Ridgley, Prather, Sprigg, Wesson, Williams, and Collateral Kin. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1991.

Tyler, Long G. Tyler’s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine-Vol. 1. Richmond: Whittet and Shepperson Printers, 1920.

Woodson, H.M. Historical Genealogy of the Woodsons and their Connections. Memphis: H.M. Woodson, 1915.

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Patrick Napier, Colonial Surgeon W-41,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Tools Used in Surgery,” The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, www.history.org (accessed May 1, 2012).

“Tool Used for Cleaning Wounds,” The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, www.history.org (accessed May 1, 2012).

“Leeches Used for Bloodletting,” The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, www.history.org (accessed May 1, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources

York County Z-266

Tuesday, April 3rd, 2012

Inscription:

York County. Area 186 square miles. One of the eight original shires formed in 1634. First called Charles River, which was named for King Charles I. The name was changed in 1643 to York for Yorkshire, England. Cornwallis’s surrender, October 19, 1781, took place at Yorktown.

 

Further Research

Captain John Smith's Map showing Kiskiack

A fort site was originally constructed on the Charles [York] River, and this site was selected by Captain Martinau and was subsequently named York.  “The Fort at Yorke” occupied a point on the river at the mouth of Wormley Creek, named for the first settler in that section, Colonel Christopher Wormley, and lies about two miles down the river from the present site of Yorktown (Trudell, 38).  In 1633, due to the safety of the fort, a settlement was built and York was selected as a crucial receiving point for goods.  A store was soon built to serve shipping and receiving needs of the settlers of both Yorke and Kiskiack, another settlement a few miles up the river that had preceeded the York settlement by about two years.

The Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown

In 1634, Virginia was divided by legislature into 8 counties, subsequently placing the fort at York in Charles County.  In 1642, the names of the river and county were changed from Charles to York in order to honor the Duke of York and Yorkshire.  As a result, Williamsburg came to be located partially in both James City County and York County, respectively (Trudell, 38).  The surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown proved the town to be immortal.  Through all of the battles fought between 1781 and 1862, the majority of the town was destroyed.  The Deneuvile Cottage is the only original colonial structure that still exists today.

Further Reading

Trudell, Clyde F. Colonial Yorktown. Richmond: The Dietz Press, 1938.

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “York County Z-266,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Captain John Smith’s Map showing Kiskiack,” The Spanish in the Chesapeake Bay, www.virginiaplaces.org (accessed April 30, 2012).

“The Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown,” Architect of the Capitol, www.aoc.gov (accessed April 30, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources

The Theft Case of Mary Aggie: not erected

Tuesday, March 20th, 2012

Inscription:

Mary Aggie, an enslaved woman, was convicted of theft in York County in 1730. Lt. Gov. William Gooch, impressed with Mary’s profession of faith when she sued previously for her freedom, supported her 1730 claim for “benefit of clergy,” which then allowed only white men to escape the harshest penalties for most first offenses. Gooch’s support resulted in Mary’s pardon. In 1732, the General Assembly extended a limited form of benefit of clergy to all races and women. Mary was sold out of Virginia in 1731, probably never knowing her appeal’s significant legal effect. The benefit was abolished in 1849.

Further Research

Dred Scott

Mary Aggie was an African American slave in the mid-eighteenth century and was often related as the Dred Scott of the next century.   Mary Aggie was and still remains and obscure person in history, but her case, however, earned her a place in history as the central figure for an important legal case resulting in laws with respect to convicted felons: white, women, Indians, mulattos and African Americans alike.  There is not much background on Mary Aggie as  there are no records of her birth or her parentage.  Mary Aggie had previously attempted to sue for her freedom in the 1720s from her owner. During this case, Mary Aggie had impressed the current governor with her proclamations of faith in Christianity – something that would prove to be in her favor when she was facing her conviction (Encyclopedia Virginia). At this time, Lieutenant Governor Sir William Gooch presided over her case and thus denied her the freedom she so desired.

Lt. Gov. William Gooch

In 1730, Mary Aggie was accused and convicted of stealing three sheets from her owner of a value of forty shillings, a crime that often yielded the penalty of death or severe corporal punishment.  Fortunately for Mary Aggie, Sir William Gooch also presided over this case and was able to send her case to the General Court in which she would possible receive the benefit of clergy.  Benefit of clergy was best known to be provided to literate persons only which allowed the convicted persons to escape death and other serious penalties – dating back to the Middle Ages English law (Encyclopedia Virginia).  However, before the final verdict, Gooch was able to pardon Aggie on the condition that she be sold out of the colony.  Her case was a precursor for the law in 1732, which allowed for almost all Virginians to plead benefit of the clergy in most cases for the next sixty years.

Mary Aggie's Pardon

After her case, it was still unclear as to whether women and slaves of Virginia were entitled to plead benefit of clergy during a first capital conviction.  The General Assembly, thus, using references to Aggie’s cases, presented evidence to the General Court and ended up passing that law in 1732.  However, though this was extreme progress, there was still a specific list of people who could not plead benefit of the clergy.  The law also allowed for courts to apply other punishments and to deny the rights of the criminals to give testimonies in court (Snyder).

Further Reading

Hemphill, John M. II. “Aggie, Mary.” In the Dictionary of Virginia Biography, Vol. 1. Edited by John T. Kneebone, J. Jefferson Looney, Brent Tartar, and Sandra Gioia Treadway. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1998.

Hemphill, J. M., II, & the Dictionary of Virginia Biography. “Mary Aggie (fl. 1728–1731)”. Encyclopedia Virginia. http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/Aggie_Mary_fl_1728-1731 (Accessed March 13, 2012).

Snyder, Terri L. Brabbling Women. Disorderly Speech and the Law in Early Virginia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003.
Photo Credits

“Dred Scott,” PBS: Africans in America, www.pbs.org (accessed May 2, 2012).

“Lt. Gov. William Gooch,” Brooklyn Museum: American Art, www.brooklynmuseum.org (accessed May 2, 2012).

“Mary Aggie’s Pardon,” Encyclopedia Virginia, www.encyclopediavirginia.org (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources link unavailable.

Aviation Field Yorktown W-232

Thursday, March 15th, 2012

Inscription:

 From July 1919 until Aug. 1921, the U.S. Navy operated an aviation training school north of here at what was then known as the U.S. Navy Mine Depot (U.S. Naval Weapons Station). The school provided the first advanced aviation and gunnery operations. In Oct. 1922 the aviation field supported the first flight made from a U.S. aircraft carrier, USS Langley, which was anchored in the York River. Also, on 8 May 1925 likely the first overland commercial flight from New York City to this region landed there.

Further Research

The land that the Naval Weapons Station sits on has been around through much of our history.  Military men trudged up and down Old Williamsburg Road, which today runs straight through the station.  The oldest structure at the station is the Lee House, which was built in 1649 and was inhabited by many families until the United States Government acquired the property. During the Civil War, the Army of the Potomac established numerous fortifications around the site.  As the war progressed, these fortifications were used as defensive protection from Confederate attacks (Freeman).

In 1916, Congress requested a site on the Atlantic Coast for a weapons handling and storage facility to fit the following criteria:

  1. Sheltered inland waterway deep enough to accommodate capital ships
  2. Sparsely populated area sufficient in size to provide quantity distance separation for explosive material processing and storage facilities
  3. Close to the naval base at Norfolk to permit short boat trips for explosive loadings in the Hampton Roads area (Global Security).

    Yorktown Mine Depot 1945 Ordnance Department

When found, the site was commissioned by the US Mine Depot, Yorktown in July of 1918.  During World War I, the US Mine Depot received, reclaimed, stored and issued mines, depth charges and related materials.  During World War II, they expanded and further developed mines and advanced underwater weapons.  Furthermore, a laboratory was installed to the facility.  The US Mine Depot became the US Naval Weapons Station, Yorktown on August 7, 1958.

U.S.S. Langley CV-1

The aviation field was located on a bluff above the York River and was within the Navy Mine Depot (Yorktown Naval Weapons Station).  The Yorktown aviation field was the first naval air station in the mid-Atlantic region and was established in 1919.  At the Aviation field, aviators were trained in bombing, gunnery, and torpedo operations.  Furthermore, the aviators also spearheaded tests of high-altitude bombsight, which further developed during World War II.  The airfield was officially closed in 1921 and all units were reassigned, the base itself also served as the deep-water channel to support the testing of the Navy’s first aircraft carrier: the USS Langley, CV-1 (Harring). The first take off took place on October 17, 1922 and the first landing took place only nine days later (Gabriele).  The aviation field played a pivotal role in naval aviation.

Further Reading

Global Security. Naval Weapons Station (NAVWPNSTA) Yorktown, Virginiahttp://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/yorktown.htm (accessed April 11, 2012).

Gabriele, Tony. “Yorktown Airfield Played Key Role in Naval Aviation.” The Roanoke Times, October 17, 2006, News Section. http://www.roanoke.com/news/roanoke/wb/87370 (Accessed April 11, 2012).

Freeman, Paul. Abandoned and Little Known Airfields: Virginia. http://www.airfields-freeman.com/VA/Airfields_VA_Hampton.htm#yorktown (Accessed April 12, 2012).

Hills, Waring. First Landing on the Navy’s First Aircraft Carrier. Patriot’s Point: Home of the USS Yorktown. http://www.patriotspoint.org/news_events/first-landing-on-the-navys-first-aircraft-carrier/ (Accessed April 12, 2012).

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Aviation Field Yorktown W-232,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“Yorktown Mine Depot 1945 Ordnance Department,” Hampton Roads Naval Museum, http://hamptonroadsnavalmuseum.blogspot.com (accessed May 2, 2012).

“U.S.S. Langley CV-1,” Department of the Navy: Navy Historical Center, www.history.navy.mil (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources link not available.

Whitaker’s House W-45

Thursday, March 15th, 2012

Inscription:

A mile north of the road is Whitaker’s House, headquarters of General W. F. Smith, battle of Williamsburg, May 5, 1862.

 

 

 

Further Research

William Farrar Smith

May 5, 1862 saw the first battle of the Peninsula Campaign, which was spearheaded by Major General George B. McClellan. This battle was the result of General Joseph E. Johnston’s shocking evacuation of the Yorktown-Warwick River line just two days prior (Salmon, 80).  As a result of Johnston’s evacuation, McClellan hastily pursued him.  McClellan sent Brig. General George Stoneman to pursue Johnston’s rear guard, which was headed by Brig. General J.E.B. Stuart’s Calvary and with whom his men skirmished many times.  Furthermore, McClellan had ordered Brig. General William B. Franklin to sail up the York River to cut Johnston off and thus prevent him from escaping.  Weary because of foul weather, Johnston decided to wall up his troops at Fort Magruder.

Map of Peninsula Campaign

General William Ferrar Smith served with one of the corps divisions under Major General Erasmus Keyes.  Smith, also known as “Baldy,” led the division that attacked Johnston from the South.  Furthermore, Smith had made Whitaker’s House his headquarters during this battle (Warner, 463).   Unfortunately for General Hooker, in the midst of battle when Hooker was expecting Smith’s support, Smith was halted more than a mile away from Hooker’s position by General Sumner because he believed that the Confederate soldiers would leave their fortifications to attack him on Yorktown Road. This belief turned out to be true, but the Confederates ended up attacking Hooker, not Sumner and Smith.

In the end, however, the battle ended up in the favor of the Union and it was portrayed as an amazing victory over superior forces.

The house itself belonged to John Whitaker, born on May 21, 1745 in Yorktown, VA.  Whitaker played a key role in the process of forming Wake County out of wilderness and establishing the County’s Government. Also known as a “Trustee of the Peace,” Whitaker served in the Wake county Militia and as a Justice of the Court in Wake County from 1777 to 1787.  In addition to his public life, he was a successful planter and businessman and thus held a substantial amount of land.

Further Reading

Eicher, John. H and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001.

Ancestry.com. “John Whitaker 1745 – 1823.” http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~glendasubyak/col_jwhitaker.html (accessed March 20, 2012).

Salmon, John S. The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 2001.

Sears, Stephen W. To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001.

Smith, William F. Autobiography of Major General William F. “Baldy” Smith, 1861-1864. Edited by Herbet M. Schiller. Dayton: Morningside House, 1990.

Warner, Erza J. Generals In Blue: Lives of Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964.

Photo Credits

Historical Marker “Whitaker’s House W-45,” courtesy of Lindsey Smith, 2012.

“William Farrar Smith,” House Divided: The Civil War Research Engine at Dickinson College, http://hd.housedivided.dickinson.edu (accessed May 2, 2012).

“Map of Peninsula Campaign,” Civil War Trust: Maps of the Peninsular Campaign 1862, www.civilwar.org (accessed May 2, 2012).

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Department of Historic Resources